山梨大学醗酵研究所 研究報告[1254年-1997年]


vol.16 (1981)
「ブドウ灰色かび病菌 Botrytis cinerea のブドウ果粒および葉上での繁殖 」
Propagation of Grey Mold of Grape, Botrytis cinerea, on Grape Berries and Leaves.
後藤 昭二・青野 力三
SHOJI GOTO and RIKIZO AONO (The Instutite of Enology and Viticulture, Yamanashi University)
  ブドウ灰色かび病菌Botrytis cinereaのブドウ果粒および葉上における繁殖について検討した. 供試7菌株はMuscat Bailey A葉上での病斑面積から強大なL,中間的なM,弱小なW型に分けられた.この群別は一,二のブドウ品種果粒上での繁殖とおおよそ一致した.供試7菌株は甲州種果粒上では全く繁殖しないか,微弱な生育であった.しかし,Riesling,Semillon上には良く繁殖した.Delaware上では病斑LとM型菌株は比較的良く繁殖したが,W型菌株は微弱な生育であった,ワックス除去処理した甲州種果粒には全菌株とも非常に良く繁殖した.
 Pathogenicity of grey mold of grape, Botrytis cinerea, on grape berries and leaves was studied. Seven strains of B.cinerea was classified into 3 types, L(large), M(moderate), and W(weak), on the basis of the lesion on leaf of Muscat Bailey A. This classification almost agreed with the degree of propagation of the mold on grape berries of Koshu and Delaware. All strains used did not or very weakly grow on the berries of Koshu, but did well on Riesling and Semillon. On the berry of Delaware, L and M type strains could propagate, but W type strains grew weakly. On the wax-free berries, all strains could propagate very well.
Comparative Studies on Surface Waxes on Wine Grapes.
後藤昭二・青野 力三
(The Institute of Enology and Viticulutre,Yamanashi University)
 わが国の代表的なワイン醸造用ブドウの甲州種や, Muscat Bailey Aその他の交配種およびヨーロッパ系品種など12品種,16試料を供試しMartin法によって表皮ワックスを抽出しブドウ表皮の単位面積当りのTotal wax量およびHardとSoft waxの構成比の比較分析を行った.
 Concentration of surface wax and the composition of hard and soft waxes of 16 samples in 12 wine grape varieties were compared. Total amount of wax range from 85g/cm² to 205kg/cm², the average being 148μg/cm². It was noted, how-ever, that Koshu, Muscat Bailey A and other hybrides that has been adapted to the climate of the middle Japan had 140μg/cm² to 205μg/cm² of wax and European varieties, Semillon, Riesling, and Cabernet Sauvignon etc. had 83μg/cm² to 120μg/cm² of wax. The portion of hard wax to total wax range from 59.4% to 65.2%, and the difference in the percentage among the varieties was not found, except for Muscat Bailey A which had 68.1-74.4% of hard wax. %, and the difference in the percentage among the varieties was not found, except for Muscat Bailey A which had 68.1-74.4% of hard wax.
Phenolic Fraction and Browning Capacity of White Wine made from Abnormal (Ajinashi Disease) Koshu Grapes
米山智恵子・櫛田 忠衛
The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, Yamanashi University
 1.原料ブドウの還元糖及び全フェノールは健全果の174g/l, 688mg/lに対し,味なし果は112g/l, 392 mg/lと少なかった。
 3.味なし果ワインの全フェノールが少ないのは, 主にフラボノイドによるもので,他に桂皮酸誘導体とチロソールも若干影響していることがわかった.
 4. 味なし果ワインはフラボノイドが少ないために褐変の進行が遅く,また褐変ワインの吸光スペクトルも健全果ワインのものと異なった。
 The constituents and Properties of white wine made from abnormal (Ajinashi disease) Koshu grapes were investigated.
 1.Raw Ajinashi grapes contained 112g/l of reducing sugar and 392 mg/l of total phenol in contrast to the values of 174g/l and 688mg/l in normal grapes.
 2.Total nitrogen and acid contents of Ajinashi wine were higher, but the other constituents, especially total phenol, were lower than those of normal wine.
 3.In phenol fractions, flavonoid of Ajinashi wine was only about one third of that of normal wine, and tyrosol and cinnamates contents were also much lower than those of normal wine. There was no difference in non-phenolic compounds and other sudstances such as simple phenolic compound between the two wines.
 4.Browning of Ajinashi wine appeared slower and weaker than that of normal wine, due to the lower content of flavonoid.
 5.By the pattern analysis on Sephadex column, it was found that the amounts of nucleic and amino acid fractions of Ajinashi wine were slightly larger, but that of cinnamates fraction was much smaller than that of normal wine.
 6.The quality of Ajinashi wine was judged to be poor, due to its very pale color, thin body and sour taste.
「甲州および Muscat Bailey A ブドウのポリフェノールオキシダーゼの電気泳動パターン」
Electrophoretic Patterns of Polyphenol Oxidase from Koshu and Muscat Bailey A grapes
中村 和夫・天野 義文・加賀美元男
(Depart. of Fermentation Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi University)
 甲州種ブドウからポリフェノールオキシダーゼを抽出し,電気泳動を行い,甲州種ブドウの特徴を Muscat Bailey A種と比較検討し次の結果を得た.粗酵素の比活性は甲州種, Muscat Bailey A 種ともに未成熟ブドウ果実の方が高かった.成熟度の違いによる電気泳動パターンでは,甲州種ブドウは成熟ブドウと未成熟ブドウとで違いが認められた。品種の違いによる電気泳動パターンでは,甲州種ブドウとBailey A種ブドウとでは,未成熟期では差は認められず,成熟期では差が認められた.ジフェノール類に対する反応では共通的に活性を有するバンドと基質特有のバンドが現れた. モノフェノール類に対する反応では, p-クレゾールには反応があったがL-チロシンにはなかった. ピロガロールに対しては成熟甲州種のみ活性が認められた.  酢酸を用いたacid shockにより,処理以前に比べて活性が増加し全ての基質に対し反応した.特に甲州種成熟ブドウにはバンド数の増加が認められ,Muscat Bailey A種との差が更に明確になった.  
 In order to compare the characteristics of Koshu with Muscut Bailey A grape, an electrophoretic study on the polyphenol oxidase was performed by using poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis.  
 In both varieties, the crude enzyme preparation from unripe grapes showed a higher specific activity than" that from ripe ones.  
 Isozyme patterns of both varieties were essentially similar with unripe grapes, but different with ripe grapes.  
 Pattern of the isozyme bands differed between both varieties when o-diphenol or. p-cresol was used as a substrate, though a band at Rp 0.3 was detected with both varieties, Only the enzyme from ripe Koshu grape acted on pyrogallol.  
 Acetic acid treatment of the gel after electrophoresis resulted in the increase in the enzyme activity, and in the number of bands. The effect was especially marked in ripe Koshu grape, this clearly showing the characteristic difference between both varieties.
Utilization of Gelatin Hydrolysate in White Wine-Making
(The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, Yamanashi University)
pp. 21-25[PDF]
 Koshu white wine was made from the musts treated with a gelatin hydrolysate prior to the addition of yeast. Analyses and sensory evaluation showed that the gelatin hydrolysate was a possible material for sulfur dioxide to prevent browning, other oxidative reactions, and formation of cloudiness. The phenol content in that wine, particularly the tannin content, was smaller than that in the wine, made from the musts treated with sulfur dioxide. The peptide content, however, was similar to that in the wine made from the musts treated with sulfur dioxide. There was no appreciable difference in their chemical properties other than the phenol content between the wine made from the musts treated with the gelatin hydrolysate and that made from the must treated with sulfur dioxide.
Fractionation and Properties of Antibacterial Substance from Grapes and Wines
(The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, Yamanashi University)
pp. 27-33[PDF]
 An antibacterial substance was obtained from various grape juices and wines by Dowex 50-X2 chromatography followed by treatment with charcoal. The substance had distinct antibacterial activity against many bacteria, but the degree of the antibacterial activity varied with the strains of bacteria. The activity was considerably affected by other wine components, particularly organic acids. However, heating of the substance at various pH resulted in no loss of the antibacterial activity. It was found that the antibacterial substance was not, in fact, the materials such as alcohols, phenol compounds, SO2, organic acids, amino acids, peptides, and metal salts.
Homothallism in Wine Yeasts.
山崎豊彦・石川 貴・野々村英夫
TOYOHIKO YAMAZAKI, TAKASHI ISHIKAWA, and HIDEO NONOMURA (Depart. of Fermentation Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi University)
pp.35-38 [PDF]
 供試した5株のワイン酵母 (Jerez-5, RIFY 7129, Charente fine champagne RIFY7148, Cruess 66 RIFY 7149, OC-2RIFY 7187, Champagneepernay 1936-1)は,いずれもSaccharomyces属酵母であり,内4株がホモタリズム株であることを示唆する結果を得た.  
 Data sugesting the occurrence of homothallism in four of the five wine yeast strains used were described. The tested strains showed a high frequency of four spored ascus formation (10-30%), except one strain which formed a trace of two spored asci. Spore clones from the four strains shown a high sporulation rate had a self-sporulation ability. In tetrad analysis of the four strains and their spore cultures, the full tetrads were recovered with a frequency of 83 to 100 percent and their sporulation ability showed 4 Spot: 0 Spo-segregation.
Changes in Berry Sizes and Composition of Constituents in Wine-Grape Varieties during Ripening Period.
山川 祥秀・守屋 正憲・穴水秀教
(The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, Yamanashi University)
pp. 39-45[PDF]
 Riesling:6年生樹,開花始め6月5日,開花終り6月11日,成熟期にきわめて密着果房となり,8月下旬の長雨による裂果を生じ,さらに腐敗果が発生して約50%の減収であった。収穫期は9月中旬からであるが,本品種の特徴を出すワインを譲るためにはできるだけ収穫をおくらせ完熟させることが必要であるが,酸度に注意をはらう必要がある.また,雨に弱くきわめて裂果しやすい。9月20日収穫,積算温度1800°C,糖度18.2%,酸度0.70g/100ml, 糖酸比26であった。分析調査は腐敗果が多く試料採取が不可能となり,10月18日で終了。
 Chardonnay :4年生樹,開花始め6月4日,開花終り6月11日, Riesling 同様密着果房であるがほとんど裂果はない。9月中旬から収穫可能であるが,酸度が低くなりすぎる傾向があるから収穫期をおくらせる場合は酸度に注意をはらう必要がある。 ヨーロッパ系品積算温度1800°C,糖度19.0%,酸度0.65g/100ml,糖酸比29であった。
 Muscat Bailey A:6年生樹,開花始め6月6日,開花終り6月12日。きわめて長大房の性質のため,5月下旬の開花前に摘穂,房作りを行い収穫量規制をした。9月末日収穫可能成熟するに従いラブルスカ臭が強くなるので収穫時期を早めた方がワインのためには良いと思われる。9月28日収穫,積算温度1900°C,糖度19.5%,酸度0.92g/100ml,糖酸比21であった。
 甲州:6年生樹,開花始め6月9日,開花終り6月13日,甲州種としては若木の部類に属するため果房はきわめて疎着で,いわゆる「だらっ房」であった.摘芯2回,収穫期に試験樹別に屈折計糖度を調査した結果,18%台4樹,17%台2樹,16%台1樹,15%台1樹, 14%台2樹で健全果樹(15.1%以上)8樹,判定不能樹 (14.1~15.0%) 1812樹であった。甲州種においては現在問題となっている「味なし果」をなくし,少なくとも18%以上の糖度を期待して優良樹やウイルスフリー樹での栽培が必要である。糖度,酸度の変化のなくなった10月が収穫期と思われる。10月22日収穫,積算温度2100°C, 糖度16.7%,酸度0.68g/100ml,糖酸比25であった。
 Riesling Lion:4年生樹,開花始め6月4日,開花終り6月11日大房(500g以上))のため厳しい収穫量規制が必要であるが非常に栽培しやすい品種である。6月下旬に普通の結果母枝は1房,先端の強勢母枝は2房に摘房を行う。摘芯1回,9月中旬から収穫可能であるが,酸度に注意してできるだけ収穫をおくらせ完熟させることが必要と思われる。10月9日収穫,積算温度2000°C,糖度18.5%,酸度0.75g/100ml,糖酸比25であった。
 Pinot Noir : 4年生樹,開花始め6月5日,開花終り06月11日特別な栽培管理はしない、密着果房ではないが雨に弱く,裂果して腐敗果が発生しやすい。9月上旬に収穫可能である収穫を早め9月3日に収穫したが約50%の減収,積算温度1700°C, 糖度17.2%,酸度0.86g /100ml,糖酸比20であった。分析調査は腐敗果が多くなり試料採取が不可能となり9月26日で終了。裂果しやすいことから栽培のむづかしい品種と思われる。
山梨大学大学院 総合研究部附属 ワイン科学研究センター
The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi
所在地:〒400-0005 山梨県甲府市北新1丁目116

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